What is Learning?


Learning is acquiring new knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors. Humans, animals, and some machines all can learn. However, what is learning exactly? Here are some definitions that will help you understand the process. Learning is a complex process that involves different steps. Learning occurs in three different stages. The first stage occurs when the person learns new information, while the second occurs when the person learns new skills.

Social learning

One of the social learning principles is that we learn to do things in a specific way after observing others do them. However, this does not always occur immediately. For example, when we observe someone riding a bike, we must be able to get on the bike ourselves to reproduce that same behavior. If we can successfully reproduce what we see, it indicates that we have learned to do this behavior. This principle, replicability, is used to explain the learning process.

During the preschool years, social learning is most valuable because this is when children learn to play with others and cooperate with others. Without these opportunities, a child may have trouble integrating into a group later in life.


Instruction is the process of providing students with the knowledge and skills to achieve specific learning goals. This process consists of a series of steps designed to maximize the learning process. Instruction is often associated with the term ‘curriculum,’ which refers to the content and methods for teaching. The two terms are often used interchangeably.

Direct instruction can be effective in a variety of situations. It can engage students, keep materials current, and respond to student concerns. While many students benefit from this method of instruction, it is not always appropriate for all students. For younger students, a single, 10 to the 12-minute session may be sufficient. However, it is essential to note that direct instruction is only one element of a student’s learning experience.


Inference in learning is the ability to infer something that isn’t explicitly stated. For example, a student may infer that a baby is crying because it is hungry or tired. This inference may be wrong, but the student has background knowledge that enables him to make the correct inference.

The inference is a vital part of machine learning and can be very helpful in processing large amounts of new information, such as from widely dispersed IoT networks. It is also useful when teaching children how to sort fruit and identify red ones from other fruits.


Enculturation is learning to live, act, and think in a culture that is different from our own. This process is maintained over time by cultural transmission. Cultures are passed down from generation to generation, and parents teach their children cultural knowledge. Enculturation can also occur through social learning, such as teaching children about culture, morals, and appropriate responses in social situations.

The process of enculturation involves two distinct phases: informal and formal. Informal enculturation occurs before formal education and is usually the result of socialization within the family, community, or friends. Formal education occurs in schools or other institutions of learning.

Multimedia learning

Multimedia learning combines several methods to reach a student’s learning objectives. These methods include text, audio, video, and images. Studies show that these components stimulate learning in a variety of ways. For example, using multimedia to deliver lessons helps students develop an optimistic attitude and become more engaged in learning. Moreover, students engaged in multimedia learning environments are more likely to identify problems and seek solutions.

Multimedia learning allows students to explore the world in new ways. For example, using multimedia to teach about the environment can help students learn about the different habitats and rare species of animals. It can also help students explore different places, such as dangerous jungles and spaces.

Latent learning effects

Latent learning effects occur without conscious awareness. For example, if you drive to work daily, you will pass many stores and exits. If you are familiar with one of these places, you may be able to remember how to get to it even without a map. Latent learning takes place in the subconscious, and it may reveal hidden skills and knowledge.

Although these effects are less evident in humans, animals consistently demonstrate latent learning. Rats, for example, learn by watching their owners use a litter box. This helps them use the box on their own later. Similarly, parrots listen to their owners for weeks before they learn to imitate their voice for a treat.